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一座古堡,两段悲情--白静
2013-8-16   浏览量:3503

白静


(一)

观海城堡位于意大利东北部边境城市的里雅斯特的西北,曾属奥匈帝国。它是奥地利皇帝弗兰茨·约瑟夫一世的弟弟马克西米利安大公(后来的墨西哥皇帝)和比利时公主夏洛特的爱巢,于18561860年期间由马克西米利安监督建造,现为观海城堡历史博物馆。

新婚燕尔的马克西米利安和夏洛特在这里度过了四年的甜蜜时光。十九世纪六十年代,拿破仑三世想将墨西哥变成在法国控制下的欧洲卫星国,挑选了马克西米利安做墨西哥的傀儡皇帝。1864年,马克西米利安携夏洛特远赴大洋彼岸的墨西哥就任,不曾料到这竟是一场悲剧的开始。墨西哥的局势错综复杂。1866年,扶植马克西米利安的法国部队在墨西哥本土抵抗势力和美国的强大压力下撤军。马克西米利安的王位岌岌可危。皇后夏洛特回到欧洲,马不停蹄地向法国、奥地利皇帝和罗马教皇求助。虽然她使出浑身解数也没有任何成效。在观海城堡,对往昔美好时光的追忆和对丈夫未卜命运的极度担忧最终致使心力交瘁的夏洛特精神崩溃。而千里之外的马克西米利安在1867年被俘并惨遭杀害,执行枪决前还念着“可怜的夏洛特”。痛失爱侣的夏洛特在比利时了却余生,在精神疾病恢复的间歇仍在编纂文章回忆墨西哥帝国。

(二)

白色的观海城堡伫立在海岬上,在蔚蓝色亚得里亚海海水的映衬下显得洁白美丽、一尘不染。城堡属折衷主义建筑,自由组合了哥特式、罗马式和拜占庭式等其他建筑形式。内部华丽典雅,以金、红两色为主色系,富显皇家气派。屋顶和墙壁的图案纹饰精美雅致,富于变化,浮雕效果强烈。晶莹璀璨的水晶吊灯仍旧闪耀着当年的华贵。

城堡共有两层,一楼是主人马克西米利安和夏洛特起居的场所,二楼用来招待客人。

一楼最奇特的房间要数大公办公室了,它按比例复制了奥地利皇家海军旗舰之一诺瓦拉战舰船尾的起居室。四根精心雕刻的柱子特意使房间变得拥挤,模拟战舰上的狭窄空间。屋顶设计了一个圆形舷窗,昏暗的光线射下来,仿佛真的身临船舱。18541862年期间,马克西米利安任皇家海军总司令,诺瓦拉战舰是他最喜爱的战舰。正是诺瓦拉战舰载着马克西米利安赴墨西哥就任皇帝,又在悲剧发生后将他的遗体运回的里雅斯特

在清澈琴音的引领下来到大公夫人室。夏洛特喜爱音乐和绘画,面前这架小巧秀雅的钢琴正是她当年弹奏过的。夏洛特的大幅肖像悬挂在正中间,下面是摆放着鲜花的几案。她深邃的目光透过保护玻璃望过来,不禁使人联想起她悲剧般的命运。

来到小礼拜堂。罗马式吊灯从屋顶垂下来,堂内无窗,灯光幽暗,墙板上宗徒林立,虽然空间不大,却显得肃穆庄严。

拐了一个弯儿,来到楼梯口,栏杆柱墩上雕刻着持矛侍卫,神姿威武,栩栩如生。楼梯转弯处的墙壁上挂满了鹿角、兽骨和翎箭等武器,令人不由得驻足流连。

二楼设有中国和日本室。室内吊着中国的宫灯,摆满了中国的瓷器、屏风和雕花木箱。在一副反映日本宫廷生活的蓝底织锦下方摆放着两个色彩浓艳的蓝瓷绣墩。18571859年期间,马克西米利安乘诺瓦拉战舰环航世界,曾到达中国的香港和上海,因此诞生了这两间富有异国情调的休憩室。

隔壁简直是画家塞萨尔·戴勒艾科阿的展厅,挂满了他的画作。这些油画记录了城堡及其主人的历史。屋顶的一副油画神话了马克西米利安为观海城堡奠基的情景。他英雄般居于仙人、天使的围绕之中,手指指向天空。而在马克西米利安接受王位的油画中,他孤身一人站在左边,右面是说客们,有十几个之众,心怀叵测,眼神飘移。这幅画暗示着马克西米利安不确定的前程。其他油画有的描绘了迎接奥地利皇后伊丽莎白(茜茜公主)驾临观海城堡的情景;有的描绘了人们欢送马克西米利安和夏洛特离开的里雅斯特赴任的热烈场面。

宝座厅是城堡最大的房间。屋顶做层层吊饰,十分壮观。临墙、在巨大的红色幔帐下是象征王权的宝座,旁边是马克西米利安真人一般大小的全身肖像。靠窗墙上有一幅君主像,马克西米利安和夏洛特位居顶部,上面还绘着神态各异的挪威、巴西皇帝、俄国沙皇等众多男女君主。无论名垂青史还是遗臭万年,他们都曾把握过国家的命脉。

观海城堡陈设的家具主要为巴洛克和新文艺复兴风格,造型新奇,花饰复杂,多以曲线勾勒线条,或用异色木纹相拼,或镶嵌蚌壳、象牙,或描金绘彩。每件家具华美考究,上面嵌饰的螺钿和漆色如同一百多年前一样崭新发亮。瓷器、烛台、钟表、胸像、塑像等饰品琳琅满目、造型精巧。数量众多的油画布置在每个房间,画上的贵族不苟言笑,神情凝重。

(三)

在马克西米利安去世和夏洛特回到比利时以后,观海城堡一直是哈布斯堡家族短暂逗留的场所。18829月,城堡迎来了尊贵的奥地利王室全家,即,皇帝弗兰茨·约瑟夫一世、皇后伊丽莎白(茜茜公主)、王储鲁道夫和王妃斯黛芬尼的造访。王室此行的目的是访问的里雅斯特,皇帝宴请了当地的名流。而皇后本人则在18691896年期间曾十几次光顾城堡。为什么她对观海城堡情有独钟呢?

人们对茜茜公主的故事耳熟能详。电影构筑了一个虚幻美丽的爱情神话:年轻英俊的奥地利皇帝弗兰茨与美貌活泼的巴伐利亚公主茜茜一见钟情,共结百年之好。真实的情节只有这样一个美好的开头,而结尾却凄婉悱恻。茜茜在自由宽松的环境下成长,与宫廷的刻板迂腐和繁文缛节格格不入,婚后立即与弗兰茨的母亲索菲皇太后产生矛盾,生下的三个孩子都被严格看管,不得亲近。长女索菲的夭折也被归咎于她不称职做母亲。而丈夫弗兰茨勤于政务,更是难得一见。茜茜的健康状况日益恶化,宫闱的严苛氛围越来越使她难以呼吸。直到发现亲爱的弗兰茨竟然不忠于她,终于她抛弃一切羁绊,旅行他乡,并且越来越频繁,甚至一年在维也纳也呆不上几周。1889年儿子鲁道夫的自杀使已经五十几岁的茜茜遭到了最后的打击,只剩下了一副日渐衰老、饱受疾病和营养不良折磨的躯壳。1898年,茜茜在日内瓦意外遇害了,这与其说是她悲剧的终结,不如说是她对尘世的彻底解脱。弗兰茨在得到茜茜遇害的消息后出人意料地说:“你不知道她对我有多重要。”

观海城堡,茜茜的众多避难所之一,记录了这位忧郁皇后的自怜与叹息。“海洋是我的告解神父,他除去非我本性的一切,使我重又恢复了青春。”在这里,她卸下沉重的面具与枷锁,重温女儿时代的纯真自我。打开长及脚踝的栗色秀发,临着亚得里亚海的微咸海风,舒畅地呼吸自由的空气。在梦一个个破灭以后,自由是她唯一和最终的追求。

在夕阳映照下显得安详而静穆的观海城堡见证了两对不幸王室情侣的悲情。他们居于权利金字塔的尖峰,政治风云的顶端,然而荣华富贵却不能赋予他们幸福。马克西米利安对权利的追逐最终令他客死他乡;夏洛特如愿以偿做了皇后,却永远失去了爱人;弗兰茨一生为权为势疲于奔波,而无力维护一个家庭;茜茜在世上空留一个美丽的身影,爱情、亲情和真情全都不属于她。今天,他们带者不平和幽怨长眠地下,只有观海城堡依旧,继续向不断前来的访问者诉说着往昔的故事。



One Old Castle, Two Sad Love Stories

Bai Jing


Part 1

    Miramare castle, which is located to the northwest of Trieste, an Italian northeast boundary city, belonged to Austria-Hungary. It was the loving nestle for Archduke Maximilian (the later Mexican emperor), bother of Austrian emperor Franz Joseph I, and his wife, Charlotte, Belgium Princess. Built from 1856 to 1860 under the  supervision of Maximilian, it is now the Historical Museum of the Castle of Miramare.

   The newly-married couple, Maximilian and Charlotte, spent four years of happy times here. In the 1860s, Napoleon  III, with an intention to turn Mexico into a European satellite country under the control of France, chose    Maximilian to be the puppet emperor. In 1864, Maximilian went to Mexico on the opposite shore of the  Atlantic with Charlotte to take office, never expecting it was the beginning of a tragedy. The situation in  Mexico was delicate and intricate. Under the resistance of Mexico and the great pressure from the  United States, Napoleon III withdrew his force from Mexico, leaving Maximilian a shaky throne. Charlotte, Mexican empress, went back to Europe to unremittingly seek assistance from French emperor, Austrian emperor and the Pope. But all were in vain. At Miramare castle, the memory to the past happy times and the extreme worries to her husband caused Charlotte, who was in greatest exhausted state, to have  mental collapse. While in Mexico far away in 1867, Maximilian was captured and killed. Before he was  executed, he murmured, “Poor Charlotte”. Charlotte, with deep grief of losing her lover, spent the rest of her life in Belgium, and, during the short period of her mental disease recovery, wrote articles in memory of Mexican Empire.

Part 2

   The beautiful and spotlessly white Miramare castle, set off by the blue Adriatic Sea, stands still at the  cape. The castle, an eclectic building, is a complex in free combination of gothic, roman and byzantine   styles. Its interior is luxurious and elegant on a golden and red base, showing an imperial air. The patterns on the ceiling and wall are exquisite and varied with prominent three dimensional effects. The brilliant  crystal lamps shine with the nobleness of old times.

   The castle has two stories. The ground floor was the living place for the host, Maximilian, and the hostess, Charlotte; the first floor was for receiving their guests.

The most unique room on the ground floor is the Archduke’s office, which proportionally copies the living room at the stern of Novara, one of the flagships of Austrian Imperial Navy. Four delicately carved  columns deliberately make the room crowded, which imitates the narrow space in the ship. On the  ceiling is a round porthole where dim light enters. People feel as if they were on board Novara. During  1854 to 1860, Maximilian served as general commander of Austrian Imperial Navy and Novara was his  favorite warship. It was Novara that took Maximilian to assume office in Mexico and after the tragedy,  transported his body to Trieste.

   The clear music of piano guides me to the Archduchess’ room. Charlotte loved music and painting. The small and refined fortepiano before me is the one she used to play. Charlotte’s big sized portrait is hung right in the middle, underneath is a small table with flowers. She gazes me through the protection glass. Her deep eye expression makes people associate with her tragic fate.

   Here I come to the small chapel. A roman lamp hangs down from the ceiling. Without any window, the  room is dark and dim. On the wall panel, the disciples stand still. Although the chapel is not spacious, it  looks solemn and dignified.

After taking a turn, I get to the staircase entrance. The lifelike guards with spear on the handrail banisters are valiant and spirited. The walls at the turning of the staircase are decorated with deer horns, beast  bones, arrows and other weapons, attracting people to stop to watch.

   Chinese and Japanese drawing rooms are arranged on the first floor. A Chinese palace lantern is hung and chinaware, screens and carved trunks coming from China are displayed. Under a blue-based tapestry showing Japanese imperial life are two bright blue temple jars. During 1857 to 1859,  Maximilian circumnavigated the world by Novara. He had been to Hang Kong and Shanghai. Therefore,  the two exotic drawing rooms were created.

   The next room, the walls of which are covered with his paintings, is almost a show room solely for  Cesare Dell’acqua, an Italian painter. The paintings record the history of Miramare castle and its owner. One on the ceiling mythicizes the scene that Maximilian made the foundation for the castle. He, surrounded by celestial beings and angles as if a hero, points his finger up to the sky. In the painting depicting the sight that he received the throne, Maximilian stands alone at left side; at the right side are more than a  dozen persuasive talkers with sinister intentions. It shows the uncertain prospect for Maximilian. There  are many other paintings. One shows the scene that Elizabeth, the Austrian Empress (Sisi), arrived at  Miramare castle. Another describes the warm sight that people saw Maximilian and Charlotte off Trieste.

   The throne room is the largest room in the castle. The roof, with many layers of decoration, is majestic.  Near the window, under the red canopy is the throne representing the imperial authority. Maximilian’s life size portrait is beside. On the wall between windows is a portrait tree of monarchs. Maximilian and  Charlotte sit on top; Norway king, Brazil emperor, Russia Czar and other male and female monarchs     with different facial expressions are portrayed underneath. No matter they are crowned with eternal glory or notoriety, they once ruled their countries.

   The furniture in the castle is of Baroque and Neo-renaissance styles with curved lines, novel shape and intricate decoration. Some is made with wood in  different colors which is pieced together; some is inlaid with mother-of-pearl and ivory; some is gold-outlined or color-painted. Every piece of furniture is exquisite. The shell and paint are still shining though they are well over a hundred years old. Various decorations such as chinaware, candlesticks, clocks, busts and statuettes are great in number and of fine workmanship. A large number of paintings are arranged at every room.  The noble on the painting are reserved, with grave expression.

Part 3

   The Miramare castle was a temporary palace for the Hapsburgs after Maximilian’s death and Charlotte’s leave for Belgium. In September 1882, the castle received the most honorable guests, the Austrian royal family, i.e., the emperor Franz Joseph I, the empress Elizabeth (Sisi), the crown prince Rudolf and his  wife, Stephanie. The intention of the royal family this time was to visit Trieste. The emperor entertained  the celebrities with grand banquets. As for the empress, she had been visiting the castle more than a  dozen times during 1869 to 1896. Why did she have a preference for Miramare castle?

   Everyone can tell Sisi’s story. The movie constructs an illusive and beautiful love myth: Franz, the  Austrian emperor, young and handsome, and Sisi, Bavarian Princess, pretty and lively, fell in love at first sight and got married. The real story only had this wonderful beginning, but with a sentimental and  plaintive end. Sisi, who had grown up under a free environment, was completely out of tune with over-elaborate imperial formalities and stiff and pedantic style. She had conflicts with Dowager Empress  Sophie immediately after her marriage. Her three children were under strict supervision off her. The  death of her first daughter Sophie was contributed to her unfitness of being a mother. Franz was forever busy with state affairs and it was difficult to see him. Sisi became weaker and weaker, while the  atmosphere at court chamber got more and more stifling. It was until she found her dear Franz was  unfaithful to her that she abandoned everything and traveled abroad. Her travel was more and more  frequent; she even could not stay in Vienna for weeks in a year. In 1889, her son Rudolf committed  suicide. The over-fifty-year-old Sisi suffered the last blow, leaving only an older and older body, which was tortured by disease and malnutrition. In 1898, Sisi was killed in Geneva, which was, rather than a tragic termination, a thorough  release from the world. Unexpectedly, Franz, after getting the news, said: “you don’t know how important she is for me.”

   Miramare castle, one of her havens, recorded the self-pity and sad sighs of the melancholy empress. “The sea is my father confessor, it restores my youth, for it removes from me all that is not myself.” At the castle, she took off the heavy mask and shackles, and the pure self at her girl age began to revive. Unfolding her chestnut hair long till her ankle, facing the salty  wind from the Adriatic Sea, she breathed the refreshing air freely. After her dreams disillusioned one  after another, freedom was her sole and final pursuit.

   The serene and solemn Miramare castle at sunset witnessed the sad love stories of the two misfortunate royal couples. They, though occupying the summit of power pyramid and controlling the changes of  political situation, could not be endowed with happiness by their untold wealth and high honor.  Maximilian died in a strange land because of his pursuit of power; Charlotte fulfilled her dream of being  an empress, but lost her lover forever; Franz spent all his life getting power and force, but not having the ability of maintaining a family; Sisi, only leaving her beautiful shadow to the world, could not possess any kind of precious love. Today, they are having eternal sleep with their resent and bitterness. However,  Miramare castle remains unchanged, continuously telling the past stories to visitors coming unceasingly.


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